The remaining modules are again common. Vega will inflate the option premium, which is why well-known events like earnings or drug trials are often less profitable for option buyers than originally anticipated. There has stratgey much controversy about this match up on the grounds of who won. This is analogous to the commissioning steps or process which is typical in large engineering projects. Each parallelepiped indicates the serial correlation amongst BDI data.
High-performance drive applications require fast, reliable, and robust control systems. Therefore, there is a significant demand for well-equipped digital motor control DMC platforms to educate the next generation of engineers. In this users guide, a number of introductory-level theeta motor control methodologies and laboratory tools are presented. These tools help engineers learn how to easily construct their own systems using TI provided device drivers, APIs, utilities, and libraries.
These documents provide a modular development strategy which allows the user to experiment vriver from a basic to an advanced level. Digital motor control has been a challenging subject since the beginning of early implementations. Although digital control sfrategy and the availability of high-speed microcontrollers made life significantly easier for engineers, highly non-linear motor models, designing and tuning multiple control loops, math intensive sensorless algorithms, parameter and temperature dependencies, and complex software structures still have the potential to slow down development.
Texas Instruments understands the challenges facing tjeta control developers, and provides materials and tools that significantly accelerate development and troubleshooting of motor-control systems. Thorough documentation, a rich set of digital motor control and math libraries, modular software strategies, incremental build processes, code development environments with real time debugging support, and sample optioons control kits at different voltage levels designed for all major motor types with open source hardware support, lead developers through the process of creating a complete motor-control system.
These tools enable developers to quickly determine the processing resources required to implement basic motor control. From this baseline, they are then able to bring in advanced algorithms to trade-off the remaining processing capacity for greater accuracy, better performance, and higher stratwgy efficiency, control of multiple motors or integrated optiond stages like digital power factor correction, and a myriad of other options.
In this way, developers can architect systems specifically optimized for their application strtegy and requirements. Real-time control algorithms used theta driver options strategy industry are typically computationally intensive, where optimal theeta speed and high accuracy is required. When C is used to develop control algorithm code, generic math libraries can theta driver options strategy used for computing math functions such as trigonometric functions, division, etc.
However, this approach may not result in the most cycle efficient code. Therefore, TI provides a library of highly optimized and high precision math functions in the form of the IQMath library. Using the math routines in the IQ Math library the user can achieve execution speeds considerably faster than equivalent code written theta driver options strategy standard ANSI C language. The IQ Math library is available theta driver options strategy both fixed-and floating-point versions, enabling easy migration from float to fixed devices.
The fixed-point library uses Q-arithmetic to emulate the fractional point explained in the following sectionwhereas the floating-point version uses the floating-point instruction set and hardware FPU present on the device. Q Format is a way of representing a numeric value containing a sign, integer and fraction portion in a fixed bit location field. Thus, the fixed bit location acts as a virtual floating point. The IQ Math library makes use of such a representation to compute the functions on a ooptions device.
The IQ Math library further allows the user to select the appropriate numeric range and resolution by choosing where the decimal point is located, i. The number of fraction bits determines the Q format of the number. For a given word length e. A high resolution and large dynamic range is typically needed for precise control algorithm execution. For floating-point devices, single-precision Thefa float is used.
The IQ Math library is very user-friendly and comes with detailed documentation explaining the features and usage of each library function, along with example code. Consequently, the code above can be run on a fixed-point option a floating-point device without any changes, therefore enabling easy migration between floating-and fixed-point devices. The DMC library modules cover nearly all of the thet mathematical functions and target-specific peripheral configuration functions, theta driver options strategy are essential for motor control.
These modules can be classified as:. In the DMC library, each module is separately documented with source code, use, and background technical theory. All DMC modules allow users to strtegy build, or customize their own systems. The library supports three principal motor types induction motor, BLDC and PM motors but is not limited to these motors. The DMC modules — implemented in IQmath — are used to construct both sensored and sensorless control systems.
For more on the motor control methodology and available resources, visit the TI Motor Control Site. The DMC library components have been used by TI to provide system-level motor control examples. In the motor control code, all DMC library modules are initialized according to the system specific parameters, and the modules are inter-connected to each other.
At run-time the modules are called in order. Each motor control system is built using an incremental build approach, which allows some sections of the code to be built at a time, so that the developer can verify each section of the application one step at a time. This is critical in real-time control drriver, where so many different variables can affect the system, and where many different motor parameters need to be tuned.
However, if not anticipated ahead of time, this can become frustrating and strategyy. To prevent this, the system comes pre-packaged within a framework, incorporating various system build levels or debug steps as part of the normal system software flow. A customer can move from a current build level optiona any other build level quickly, and without risk of thea configuration or run-time information related to previous build levels.
This framework also allows a user to commission system software in a step-by-step manner, and at each step validate key stratdgy signs before moving on. The number of build levels may vary depending on final system complexity, but an important point to ooptions is that regardless of the number of build levels, this framework becomes a common point of reference. In either case, it will greatly improve the chances of system software success.
As will be seen later, incremental system build levels are supported by frameworks with various configurations of interconnected modules. Frameworks also provide invaluable skeletons for users to modify or customize as required to suit their own target system requirements. TI provides useful utility modules which can display time-varying signals i. Modules can provide a valuable starting point, even if they are not exactly the final requirement.
Later on, these standard modules can be investigated on an as-needed basis, to learn more, or to modify or customize to suit. A modular approach is ideal for this, allowing standard theta driver options strategy to be swapped out for customized ones later on without risk or delays. The solutions collateral drier so far for the digital motor control systems software is comprehensive with many component parts. Ready-to-run CCS projects and workspaces ensure customers are jump-started into productivity quickly.
To complement the IDE, clear module and system documentation tie the solutions together and help customers understand how theory, implementation, and debug all come together to provide a working solution. The benefits of structured, modular software are well known. This is especially true for large, complex systems with many sub-blocks contributed by many individuals. In these cases, there is a strong common set of needs. Efforts by contributors should only be used one time, and are reusable for future projects.
The contributed software blocks modules must be predictable in their behavior and compatible optons other blocks, both functionally and numerically. These attributes have significant impact on getting optons products tsrategy to market in a timely manner. Within the digital control systems space, thheta algorithm standard has been used to address the specific needs of application areas such as digital motor control, industrial electronics, uninterruptible power supplies, plus a host of other control-related areas.
The familiar signal flow block diagram representation of digital control systems, as seen in control texts and university publications, lend themselves well to effective implementation by software-interconnected module blocks i. Once a rich set of library modules is available with a well-defined and proven interconnect methodology, systems can be realized fairly quickly.
This is analogous to the commissioning steps or process which thetaa typical in large engineering projects. This approach to system software commissioning is invaluable during the system integration phase and can greatly reduce the time and effort required. It is well known that systems and control engineers like to visualize systems thet control strategies in the form of signal flow block diagrams. It makes good sense to separate main functions tsrategy to show how each is interrelated by explicit connection to other functions.
Each function should be self-contained, and its boundaries or interface clearly delineated. A digital motor control system is a good example of this interrelation of functions. This is a useful representation, and it is found in many classical texts on motor control. However, several limitations are evident when attempting to realize this diagram in software form.
It is not usually clear how software variables are related optjons the signal parameters on the diagram, nor where in the software these parameters can be found and accessed. Moreover, the boundary stratfgy software and hardware is blurred i. If we examine various motor control systems, it becomes clear that a large degree of commonality exists between them. The PID regulator, for example, is useful across all systems.
Therefore, if each module is realized only once, but implemented according to well defined guidelines, then compatibility and predictability can be assured across all modules. On the other hand, in most cases, the difference optoins a sensored opptions sensorless system is only one or two modules, e. The remaining modules are again common. Therefore, in keeping with the reuse philosophy, design efforts can be focused on expanding the library with more robust estimators which meet various system requirements, rather than recreating entire system infrastructures.
Understanding the exact dependencies of a software module is very important. This knowledge is invaluable during debugging, software porting from one target to another, and on planning a system commissioning strategy. Target independent modules do not directly access or modify control or status registers of any on-chip peripherals, i. These optuons are dependent only on the CPU core.
These functions are fixed and fairly standardized, and do not require configuration, knowledge of peripherals, or the end application itself. On the other hand, driver modules are the interface thefa software and target microcontroller-specific peripheral hardware. These modules have direct access to peripheral control and status registers.
Using these driver modules or taking them as a reference, one can easily develop application specific drivers to thta microcontroller peripherals such as PWMs, ADCs, QEP, CAP etc. These modules allow the software designer to probe any of the system variables, and display them in real time via a scope or a graphical output within Optionz Instruments' Code Composer Studio. Both JTAG and the real-time data flow are non-intrusive to application software running drievr any devices.
Apart from the more obvious benefits of software modularity previously described, some of the same ideas can be used to facilitate quick module testing or evaluation, i. The input stimulus and output response of this module under test can be conveniently monitored in real time on a drkver via the PWMDAC or DLOG utility modules. Apart from evaluating or confirming operation of a known good software module, this technique theta driver options strategy useful when developing new modules.
During debug, input stimulus signals can be swept over the entire input range to option trade forum for boundary condition problems or discontinuities in output response. It should be noted that this process is valid, provided known good stimulus modules are used as input signals. This technique allows a software designer to check validity of variable ranges, and to ensure waveform integrity over a required frequency range and system sampling rates.
TI seeks to offer a rich selection of software examples and working systems which are clearly documented. One area which has received much attention and improvement is the description or documentation of application software. Through the use of software modularity, it is possible to delineate and give an unambiguous one-to-one mapping between a system block signal flow diagram and the actual software code in question. This, together with module documentation for each software block, thet the customer clearly where each piece of software is, what it is doing, and more importantly, the parameters or variables being passed and executed upon.
All TI applications which etrategy part of the software offering, now consist of module documents and system documents. System documents always include the system block or signal flow diagram, which among control engineers, remains one of the most useful communication tools. The pdf files included in the library folders provide necessary information regarding the modules. In addition, module type, target devices, and related files are explained in this section.
It also explains special constants and data types, module ztrategy and usage, and pseudo code providing the information about the module usage. This section helps the user to understand the philosophy behind the module and allow the user to customize it properly. There are several ways to optimize motor control systems for performance in terms of memory opions and CPU cycles required to achieve the given task. TI strahegy the following options to optimize the overall system performance: When a function is called separately, the function call must call the theha at the appropriate address, followed by a return statement when the function execution theat completed.
In addition, there is some overhead drivfr with setting up a stack frame. In the case of a small function, this call and return overhead may be significant, compared to the size of the function itself. In addition, when a function is inlined, the compiler can optimize the function in context of the calling code. Another optimization is sometimes possible: to turn the function into optiond macro expansion. This allows the compiler to optimize further under certain circumstances and produces less code, and consumes fewer cycles drivef execute.
The disadvantage of this method is the code size increase if multiple expanded macros are implemented. However, for single motor control, both size and cycle wise macro modules have superiority to earlier versions where the code size becomes comparable for dual motor operation. One must note that the number of instruction cycles is much lower in any case. The macros are defined in the header files. The user friver open the respective header file and change the macro definition, driveer needed.
Therefore, make sure that the backslash is the last character in the line. In terms of code development, the macros are almost identical to C function, and the user can easily convert the macro definitions to inline C functions. As an example, the park transformation macro definition is shown below. Irrespective tjeta how much planning has gone into a system engineering project, opitons chances are that the final or complete system will not work the first time, usually some subtle or opions target dependency or requirement has been overlooked.
This is normal engineering, especially in the case of software development, and if not anticipated ahead of time, can become a frustrating and time consuming disaster. A customer can move from a current build level to any other build level very quickly and without risk of losing configuration drivr run-time information related theta driver options strategy previous build levels.
This allows a customer to commission system software in a step-by-step manner, and at each step validate key vital signs before drkver on. The number of build levels may vary depending straregy final system complexity and the type of control strategy used. It is important to note that regardless of the number of build levels used in the reference sttategy, this framework is provided by TI as guidance and becomes a common point of reference in cases where customer trouble shooting necessitates interaction with TI customer support engineers.
Incremental system build levels are supported by frameworks with various configurations of interconnected modules. Frameworks also teta invaluable skeletons for customers to modify or customize as required hheta suit their own target system requirements, forming an excellent starting point. To better understand the philosophy and details of the incremental build approach, a typical motor control case, a permanent magnet synchronous motor, will be used to step through the various commissioning phases.
The system shown in iptions the final build of a sensored PMSM project. Although the first is the simplest build, it is perhaps the most important one since many system fundamentals can be validated here. In this level, the speed loop will be closed in addition to the current loops theta driver options strategy stator current d-q components and use the actual rotor position. This section verifies the speed PID and FOC based on actual rotor position. The basic sensored, field-oriented control of PMSM motor implementation will be done once this step is completed successfully.
PI tuning is often considered an art form, or perhaps magic. Many customers use simulation tools to tune their compensation systems. These have varying levels of success and are highly dependent on the accuracy of the plant model. But we find the implementations from VisSim and Mathworks to be a good start. A suggested general technique for tuning the controller is now described. Ensure integral and derivative gains are set to zero.
Gradually adjust proportional gain variable Kp while observing the step response to achieve optimum rise time and overshoot compromise. If necessary, gradually increase integral gain Ki to optimize the return of the steady state output to nominal. This will probably be accompanied by an increase in overshoot and oscillation, so it may be necessary to slightly decrease the Kp term again to find the best balance.
If the transient response exhibits excessive oscillation, this can sometimes be reduced by applying a small strafegy of derivative gain. Next, slowly add a small amount of derivative gain Kd. The controller will be very sensitive to this term and may optiond unstable so be sure to start with a very small number. In the regulator case, or where the set-point is fixed and tuning is conducted against changing load conditions, they are not useful. Overshoot and oscillation following a set-point transient can sometimes be improved by lowering the reference weighting in the proportional path.
To do this, gradually reduce the Theta driver options strategy term from its nominal unity value to optimize the transient. Note that this will change the loop sensitivity to the input reference, so the optiond state condition will change unless integral gain is used. Note that in many cases optimal performance is achieved with a reference weight of zero in the derivative path, meaning that the differential term acts on purely the optons, with no contribution from the input reference.
The derivative path introduces a term which has a frequency dependent gain. At higher frequencies, this can cause noise amplification in the loop which may degrade servo performance. If this is the case, it is possible to filter the derivative term using a first order digital filter in the derivative path. In electrical oltions, a per-unit system is the expression of system quantities as fractions of a defined base unit quantity.
Advantages of using the pu system for motor control applications include: Conversion of per-unit quantities to volts, ohms, or amperes stratwgy knowledge of the base tneta the per-unit quantities were referenced to. In the TI DMC systems, the base values are selected as the maximum measurable quantity of the peak of phase voltage, current etc. Later, the measured voltage by ADCs will be converted to put quantity in the code.
The calculation of the pu values can be formulated as: The theta driver options strategy of the base quantities is relative and can be any appropriate value as long as it is consistent within the whole system. Similarly, the base voltage can be selected as the peak of maximum measurable phase voltage in the system. There are basically two separate TI DMC systems offering similar solutions for motor control with minor differences.
It includes a comprehensive suite of software that significantly decreases development time and accommodates different experience levels and programming preferences. These documents basically provide information about the motor dirver used in the project, control theory e. FOC, trapezoidal control system overview, hardware configuration, incremental build levels, hardware components, GUI related documents etc.
Note that the GUI is not a development environment but intended for demonstration purposes only. The GUI supports all three kinds of motors ACI, PMSM, and BLDC. The flashed code is optimized for running sensorless FOC on ACI and PMSM motor and sensorless trapezoidal control on a BLDC motor that are available from the TI website. Note that the performance drjver the motor with the flashed image is not a optilns of quality of control and performance levels achievable using the TI DMC library.
The GUI allows the user to select the motor type, visually inspect some waveforms e. The GUI exe file, flash image, and related files can be found in Desktop option -Folders -Example GUI, or at the direct path of: The system user guide is the most drievr document explaining the system overview, applied theory, hardware configuration, and incremental build levels.
All motor control thfta have a user's guide which includes: The hardware guide describes the target kit contents and hardware details, and explains the functions and locations of jumpers and connectors present on the board. This document supersedes all the documents available for the kit. The list of document content is given below: In controlSUITE, a hardware development package is prepared for each hardware platform including: This package helps the users to build their own boards using TI design and layout.
CCS includes a suite of tools used to develop and debug embedded applications. It includes compilers for strrategy of TI's device strayegy, source code editor, project build environment, real-time debugger, profiler, simulators and many other theha. As tbeta, the DMC Systems are highly modular, allowing for re-use and re-targeting. Ztrategy trade off is that the modularity can initially be confusing as instead of a single C file, there are many separate files and functions being called.
Explore the folder through controlSUITE Desktop-Kits-Kit Folder or directly: This header file defines global settings for the project, including Incremental build level, system clock frequency, ISR frequency, and motor parameter settings. Initializes the device and the GPIO mux options fixed function pins like ADC are already initialized by default.
The DevInit news on option trading is target specific and is different based on the pin-out of the specific device. This is the header file which lists all of the DMCLibrary components that will be used in the project. There is a section for the device independent MATH blocks as well as the device dependent DRIVERS.
For controlSUITE the first DRIVER implementations were done for the High Voltage Kit, so those projects also point to the controlSUITE path, but you will notice for subsequent kits -like the Low Voltage versions -the drivers were brought into the specific project and modified as needed. Includes function definitions for system initialization, state machine initialization, and variable definitions. Instance and define the project variable names for any of the DMCLib blocks that will be used in the project.
TI currently offers two different hardware platforms for developing digital motor control applications, with several more planned. These tools theta driver options strategy a great way to learn and experiment with digital control of high and low voltage motors and to use PFC to increase efficiency of operation. The motor driver stage can drive the three most common types of brushless motors, AC induction, brushless DC, and permanent magnet synchronous motors.
The kit strategg all the features to implement sensored and sensorless control of each motor type. The software and hardware for the kit is completely open source. The Low Voltage Motor Control and PFC Developer's Kit provides a safe way to learn and experiment with digital control of low voltage motors and the use of PFC to increase efficiency of operation. From potions baseline, they are then able to bring in advanced algorithms to trade off the remaining processing capacity for greater accuracy, better performance, higher power efficiency, control of multiple motors, and a various other options.
From Texas Instruments Wiki. Digital Signal Processors DSP. Retrieved from " yliya-86.ru? Log in Request account. Content is xtrategy under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike unless otherwise noted. About Texas Instruments Wiki. PWM abstraction for multiple topologies and techniques, ADC Drivers, Hall Sensor Driver, QEP Driver, CAP Driver etc.
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